Tuesday, August 23, 2011

Hybrid Synergy Drive

Hybrid Synergy Drive is a most advanced technology of developing hybrid cars. The owner of the technology is Toyota Automobiles. The key technology of hybrid synergy drive is planetary gear. With the planetary gear Hybrid synergy drive technology is developed. But it has other highly intelligent driving technologies also. It has a computer that control engine rpm motors generators and all the units in the hybrid synergy drive.  The main task to do in hybrid system is to synchronize 4 units.
  1.   Gasoline Engine 
  2.   Electric Motor/ Generator (MG1)
  3.   Electric Motor/ Generator(MG2
  4. Axel for the wheel drive.

    To join all those parts it is needed to having a planetary gear system. In the planetary gear system there are 3 main units.
    • Sun Gear
    Sun Gear is the middle gear of planetary system. When the sun gear is drive it can drive planet carrier or ring gear or both planet carrier and ring gear. So there are 3 possible outcomes when drive the sun gear. In the below of the article I will explain the advantage of this 3 possible movements.
    • Planet Carrier
    Planet carrier is the middle gear set of the planetary gear system. When planet carrier drives it also has 3 possible outcomes. Those are, Drive the sun gear or Drive the ring gear or drive both sun gear and ring gear. All those Possibilities have special advantages for the Hybrid synergy drive.
    • Ring Gear
    This is the outer gear of the planetary gear system. When this gear drives it also has 3 possible outcomes. Those are Drive planetary carrier or drive sun gear or drive both sun gear and planetary carrier.
    But there is a way to drive all those gears. All the 3 gears are in one assembled unit. So those gears cannot drive as it needed. Gears should drive with the synchronized way. However there are only 4 possible ways to drive the gears. 

    • Sun gear and Planetary carrier
    • Sun gear and Ring gear
    • Ring gear and planetary carrier
    • All three gears.

    In the Hybrid Synergy drive system all those units are combined with the advanced manner. In the planetary gear system itself connected as follow

    • Internal combustion engine (ICE)– Planetary carrier
    • Electric Motor/Generator  MG1 – Sun Gear
    • Electric Motor/Generator MG2 and driving wheel – Ring Gear

    This planetary system is called as Power Splitting Device in the Hybrid Synergy Drive. Than that this unit it has 

    • High Voltage battery case and wiring
    • Ac/Dc Converter
    • Hybrid Synergy Drive Control unit

    In the hybrid synergy drive it has several phases of driving. Here is the description of those states.
    ·         Ready mode – ICE is not started MG1 is not started. But in the ready mode ICE and MG1 also can start. In that case ICE generates the power and MG1 start to generate the electricity and charge the batteries.

    • Engine Start – In the ready mode or when in the driving engine can be started. It is happen by MG1 act as a motor and start the engine. In the hybrid synergy drive engine starting also done by the MG1 not a standard starter motor.
    •  Run Low gear - In this state engine runs with the speed but toque is not sufficient to move then MG1 act as a generator and it powers to the MG2 when the toque is enough vehicle start to run.
    • Runs High Gear – In this state Engine is up and run the toque is enough but the speed is not. Then The MG2 acts as a motor and speedup the vehicle. If this speed is also not enough then MG1 is also acts as a motor and then speedup the vehicle.
    •  Silent mode (Stealth mode) – In this mode Engine is fully stopped and Batteries supply power to MG2 to run the vehicle and MG1 is decoupled and allow to run freely. In this mode no any sound is emitting and vehicle can drive even without gasoline.
    • Reversing – In this gear system it hasn’t a reverse gear as well as conventional gear box but it powers the MG2 to negative voltage to reverse the engine and allow MG1 to free. But if the power is not enough to reverse the vehicle then it powers to MG1 and then it can reverse. If the battery is not enough to power all those then engine starts and MG1 generate the power as a generator and vehicle starts to drive to the reverse side.
    • Neutral – When the vehicle needs to state in neutral then it is decouple the MG1 and then wheels can move freely.
    • Regenerating Breaks – In this state when the driver breaks Engine cut the power and it is started to generate the power by MG2 as acting a generator. That is how it regenerates the power by using the deceleration.
    • Engine Break – In this state MG2 cut of the generating power because it will overcharge the battery (This state is happen only when the battery is fully charged) and then engine reduce the speed of the vehicle. When a engine drive with closed valves it can harm the energy reduce the speed of the vehicle.
    • Battery Charging – This can be happen when in the engine is run and but vehicle is in not moving state. 

      Those are the different states of running in Hybrid Synergy Drive. That is the hybrid technology invented by Toyota Automobiles.   

      Monday, August 22, 2011

      Hybrid vehicles

      What is called hybrid?

      Consider about the simple definition Hybrid is a technology that can use two or more power sources with synchronized way to generate the power. For example a moped is a kind of a hybrid vehicle. Because it uses engine power as well as man power. Likewise hybrids use two or more power sources to gain the maximum efficiency at the driving. Today it is become a fashion to have a hybrid car. This is about brief description of how hybrid works. Today all most all of the hybrid cars are developed using gasoline and electric power sources. Synchronization of those power sources makes good efficient product. 

      When driving a vehicle there are several driving states are happening. Basically those are as follow
      1. Start the engine and not to start driving
      2. Start driving with the acceleration
      3. Driving with constant speed on a low land
      4. Driving with deceleration
      5.  Driving on the highland
      6.  Stop driving but not the engine
      7.  Break suddenly in any driving state.

      As you know when the condition is changed the fuel consumption is totally different. That’s why in the carburetor it designed with 4 different fuel supplying capabilities and in the EFI or GDI it designed with several combinations of mixing and fuel injection for those different driving states. In normal vehicle when the engine is started and not driving (engine idle state) it burns the fuel but nothing is doing. That really makes fuel wasting. If we can charge a battery by using that energy, then it is a gain and a kind of power saving. And when driver breaks the vehicle it wastes more energy by converting the kinetic energy to heat. When driving on the city most of the time engine is starting and no movement because of the traffic signals. When it happens energy is wasting and no use can be gain from that. If a vehicle can manage the energy well and good manner by considering all those states then it makes more efficient vehicle. All the hybrids are doing that thing in several ways and several levels of success. If that management is fully success then it is called real economy vehicle. 

       The main parts of the hybrid vehicle

      In the hybrid vehicles there are several states of running. When the vehicle is start it is not start the engine. It is in a ready state to drive. When the driver removes his leg on brake pads and adds press on the accelerator paddle then vehicle starts to run by using the power gained by the batteries. But if the driver needs more acceleration and then engine automatically stars and power up the vehicle. Those processes can save more fuel by considering other vehicles. When the vehicle breaks then its breaking system will not waste the energy as heat, but it is converted to electricity by using special generator. When vehicle is stopped in the traffic signal its engine is not up and run but vehicle is in a ready state. When the driver needs to run the vehicle it is automatically change to run state from the ready state. When the vehicle is in deceleration or going down the mountain kind of a state it charges the batteries by using generator. 

      So hybrid always run with advanced intelligent power management system. Toyota called this Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD), it is so advanced technology. Honda called this Integrated Motor Assistant (IMA) it is also most likely to HSD but there are several differences are there. Nissan also use Toyota hybrid system. Likewise different companies call it different names. 

      Toyota prius 2010 version

      Advantages in hybrids
      1.   More fuel efficient and have good mileage.(it can run about double than other cars)
      2.   More comfortable and have a sophisticated driving power
      3.   Less sound emission because engine is fully optimized
      4.   Less gas emission and because of that it makes less pollution
      5.   It is a help to green concept of the world
      6.   So advanced technologies are added to the vehicle and it makes happy driving

       Honda Insight

      Disadvantages in hybrids

      1.    Batteries and spare parts are so expensive.
      2.    Batteries should be changed time to time.
      3.    So advanced technologies makes troubles sometimes.
      4.   Driver losses his manual control over the vehicle(powerful pickups drive with chosen gear kind of)
      5.   Need high technological people to repair the vehicle.
      6.   Power lines carry high voltage when in the accidents it may cause problems.

      Most popular hybrid cars

      •        Toyota prius (51MPG (City), 55MPG (combined))
      •        Toyota Highlander (27MPG (City), 30MPG (combined))
      •        Toyota Camry Hybrid (40MPG (City), 38MPG (combined))
      •        Toyota Crown
      •        Lexus HS 250h
      •        Lexus RX 400h
      •        Lexus GS 450h
      •        Toyota Estima
      •       Mazda Demio
      •     Cadillac Escalade
      •     Chevrolet Tahoe
      •    Chevrolet Silverado
      •    GMC Sierra
      •    GMC Yukon
      •     BMW X6 ActiveHybrid
      •     Honda civic Hybrid (44MPG (City), 44MPG (combined))
      •     Honda Insight (40MPG (City), 38MPG (combined))
      •     Honda Accord Hybrid
      •     Ford Escape Hybrid
      •     Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid

      Anyhow Hybrid systems are more advanced technologies and it can help a green world.

      Friday, August 19, 2011

      Gas Turbine Engines

      Considering about the automobile industry this is one of an advanced engine module that is designed to get huge power in small area. But these kinds of engines take more and more fuel to generate the power. Gas turbine engines are mostly used in aircrafts. Basically there are four kinds of gas turbine engines. They are divided by the way they generate the power. 
      •       Turbofan engine
      •       Turbo shaft engine
      •        Turbo propeller engine
      •        Turbo jet engine 

        The gas turbine engine has 3 major units called  
        • Compressor
        • Combustion chamber
        •  Turbine

        The task of the compressor is to compress the air that takes into the engine. In this unit it has several layers of compressing fans. In each layer it compresses the air that is taken into the engine.  The shape of the outer chamber and the shape of the inner fan layer help to make the successful compression of gas. When the engine start working this compressor is also started to rotate and compress the air. 

        Combustion Chamber
        This is the unit that fuel is taken place to burn and makes the energy.  In this chamber there are several fuel nozzles and those nozzles inject the fuel directly into the chamber. This is the place that makes the energy and because of that the temperature is increasing so much. So the materials should bare that temperature so it uses very tough materials. 

        This is the last unit of the gas turbine engine. In this unit energy of the burned air is converted to kinetic energy. Using several layers of turbine sets it is converted to the kinetic energy. After going through the turbine the burned air is exist to the atmosphere. All those three units are connected together by using a special rod.

        How it works?
        The first step needs external power and by using that external power the engine should rotate. For that engine has a starter motor which can start the rotation of the whole unit. When start the rotation compressor compress the air and intake is happening. Then the fuel nozzles start to inject the fuel to the chamber.  Then spark plugs are starting to make sparks. The specialty of this spark is it sparks continuously about few seconds (about 8 sec) and never sparks for the whole engine running state. Consider about the normal gasoline internal combustion engine it always spark frequently according to the timing that is adjusted. But this spark is only one time for the whole stating state.  But the fuel injectors are always injecting the fuel to the combustion chamber, not as in the gasoline internal combustion engine.  So it needs more and more fuel to keep the continuous running state.  Then the flame continuously burn and gas go through the turbine. When the burning is start the speed of the gas is increased to hundreds of miles per hour and that gas needs to flow out. The only way to flow out is to going through turbine. Then gas goes through the turbine and it makes kinetic energy on the turbine and it is rotating because of that energy. Now it can rotate the rotating units in combustion chamber and the compressor because all those units are connected through the rod.  Then the external power is no more needed and engine starts to self run.  That is how the gas turbine engine works. The way of energy that is taken out from the engine makes the difference of the engine type.  

        Turbojet Engine
        In this engine it makes power by thrusting the compressed air to the atmosphere. These kinds of engines are usually used in supersonic jets.  Because it needs thrusting power to push the vehicle.

        Turbofan engine
        In this engine the shaft itself rotate another fan that makes thrusts on the air. This is very advanced engine. Because very short type of engine makes so much thrusting power. These kinds of engines are used in the passenger aircraft.

        Turbo propeller engine
        In this engine the shaft itself rotate the propeller that that thrust the air to backside. Now a day’s these types of engines are not much popular.  These engines are used in a small personal kind of aircrafts.

        Turbo shaft engine
        In these types of engine the shaft is taken out to the engine. This shaft can be used to rotate any kind of machinery. Normally these types of engines are used in helicopters.

        That is how this turbo engines are working on. Those are the basic functions of the turbo engines and the basic concepts of turbo engine.

        Thursday, August 18, 2011

        Bugatti Veyron Super Sport

        The fastest legal road speed vehicle ever made. Consider about the history of fastest legal road vehicles Bugatti kept its name on several places. The Bugatti Veyron Super sport is the latest model of Bugatti Veyron. The speed record of former version (Bugatti Veyron EB 16.4 (253 mph)) is broken by the cars called SSC Ultimate Aero (257 mph) and Koenigsegg Agera R (260 mph). Anyhow Bugatti makes Super sport model and get the 1st place again. 

        Bugatti Veyron is designed by Volkswagen Group, One of a famous and expert automobile company in the Europe and it is made by the Bugatti Automobile SAS in France. Anyhow Bugatti makes changes in the automobile field. Not only the fastest it is the most expensive car ever made of $2,400,000 worth. No any cars worth than this. Veyron has its own body shape that always keeps their identity. The half oval shaped shell says the proud name of the Bugatti. The W16 engine, which makes 1200hp, is in the back side of the car and it makes so powerful look and feel. The name Bugatti Veyron is came from the giants in the automobile industry Bugatti is from the Ettore Bugatti who had founded the Italian Bugatti (1909) automobile company, which makes super cars with outstanding performance and Pierre Veyron a remarkable France race driver who won the 1939 Le Mans 24 hour race driving by using the Bugatti made super car.  The combination of the inventor of Bugatti and the historical race driver’s name makes the new name for this outstanding car. Veyron Super Sport has its own color combination of its body. The real black exterior is colored by using orange color body kit. Orange color makes alloy wheel to new look and feel. Michelin tires and the carbon fiber body is specially design to hold the stability at the speed of 267mph. 

        •  Maximum speed    : 267 .9 mph
        •  Engine                  : 8.0 W 16 cylinder 64 v DOHC engine quad turbocharger
        •  Displacement        : 7993 cc
        •  Power                   : 1200Hp
        •  Torque                  : 1106lb-ft
        •  Max Rpm              : 6400 RPM
        •  Transmission         : 7 speed dual clutch direct shift auto
        •  0-60mph               : 2.4 second
        •  0-100mph             : 5.0 second
        •  Length                  : 175.7 inches(446 cm)
        •  Width                   : 78.7 inches (199.8 cm)
        •  Height                  : 47.4 inches (120 cm)
        •  Wheel base          : 106.7 inches (271cm)
        •  Ground clearance  : 4.9 inches (12.5cm)
        •  Curb weight          : 4486 lbs (2035 kg)

        The engine of the Bugatti Veyron is 16 cylinder quad turbocharged gasoline engine which makes 1200 hp. That has 4 valves in one cylinder and for the whole engine it has 64 valves. It is fed by four bi-turbo chargers.  It has a fully automatic electronically controlled dual clutch, 7 speed transmission unit which makes so soft and so powerful drive to the vehicle. 3 units of radiators make the cooling function to the whole engine and to the intercooler systems. That is so functional and specially designed unit. Michelin makes special y designed tires to meet the speed of 267.9 mph and it costs $36,000.00 to change one tire set.  And the break is made-up with specially reinforced silicon carbide composite disk which makes so sophisticated braking power.

        Bugatti is the car of the decade that makes so advanced driving and so powered acceleration on the road. It is really a car that takes the eye of all kind of people. It is really a eye-catching vehicle that makes so proud on the owners mind. 

        Automobile in my view

        People have desires of different kind. This is one of a desire that makes more comfortable world.  Steam engine is considered as the first Fist successful engine ever made (1690). That was one of a turning point in the automobile history. But it takes another 195 years to make the first successful car, which was developed by famous German inventor called Karl Benz (The man who founded the Mercedes-Benz Company). That was just a car that has 3 wheels and a kind of a petrol engine. Maximum speed of the fist car was just 16km/h, but today it is multiplied by several hundreds. But that was the start of all the automobile products and invents. The industrial revolution makes so much advanced technologies now a day automobile is one of a huge industry in the world. 

        The car called Bugatti Veyron Super sport is the fastest road legal car that has ever made. That has the speed of 267.85mph (432.07kmph). That is a marvelous speed on the road. Being the fastest road speeder is not much easy task. The Bugatti veyron (253.52 mph) early model was the fastest road speeder, but after the united state car called SSC Ultimate Aero (261 mph) breaks that record. Then again Bugatti made their second version called Bugatti veyron super sport. So now again it is the fastest. That is one side of the automobile industry.

        Consider about the comfort that is another really important and valuable field in the automobile industry. Consider about the luxury and condition of the cars Rolls Royce is considered as one of a most luxurious car. That is a brand in united state. 

        Another attractive field of the automobile industry is land speeders. That is somewhat unbelievable technologies and most marvelous area. Can anyone guess a speed of 6,453 mph (10324.8kmph) or 8.5 Mach. But that came true in New Mexico's Tularosa Basin as a test. That is the land speed record of the rail vehicle in the world. 

        In my view of the automobile it is a really interesting field and everyday updating field in the world. Here I am described only a small amount about the technology. This blog is all about the automobile and how it works. We will meet again with the knowledge of several automobile technologies. This is first article because of that this isn’t a specific one, but to make some interest.